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Usual Dosing (Adults)
Acarbose is an oral alpha-glucosidase inhibitor for use in the management of type 2 diabetes mellitus.
DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION There is no fixed dosage regimen for the management of diabetes mellitus with acarbose tablets or any other pharmacologic agent. Dosage of acarbose tablets must be individualized on the basis of both effectiveness and tolerance while not exceeding the maximum recommended dose of 100 mg t.i.d. Acarbose tablets should be taken three times daily at the start (with the first bite) of each main meal. Acarbose tablets should be started at a low dose, with gradual dose escalation as described below, both to reduce gastrointestinal side effects and to permit identification of the minimum dose required for adequate glycemic control of the patient.
Initial Dosage The recommended starting dosage of acarbose tablets is 25 mg given orally three times daily at the start (with the first bite) of each main meal. However, some patients may benefit from more gradual dose titration to minimize gastrointestinal side effects. This may be achieved by initiating treatment at 25 mg once per day and subsequently increasing the frequency of administration to achieve 25 mg t.i.d.
Maintenance Dosage Once a 25 mg t.i.d. dosage regimen is reached, dosage of acarbose tablets should be adjusted at 4-8 week intervals based on one-hour postprandial glucose or glycosylated hemoglobin levels, and on tolerance. The dosage can be increased from 25 mg t.i.d. to 50 mg t.i.d. Some patients may benefit from further increasing the dosage to 100 mg t.i.d. The maintenance dose ranges from 50 mg t.i.d. to 100 mg t.i.d. However, since patients with low body weight may be at increased risk for elevated serum transaminases, only patients with body weight > 60 kg should be considered for dose titration above 50 mg t.i.d. If no further reduction in postprandial glucose or glycosylated hemoglobin levels is observed with titration to 100 mg t.i.d., consideration should be given to lowering the dose. Once an effective and tolerated dosage is established, it should be maintained.
Maximum Dosage The maximum recommended dose for patients ≤ 60 kg is 50 mg t.i.d. The maximum recommended dose for patients > 60 kg is 100 mg t.i.d.
Plasma concentrations of acarbose in renally impaired volunteers were proportionally increased relative to the degree of renal dysfunction. Long-term clinical trials in diabetic patients with significant renal dysfunction (serum creatinine > 2.0 mg/dL) have not been conducted. Therefore, treatment of these patients with acarbose is not recommended.
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