PYCARD image from New Medical Terms
The gene on chromosome 16p11.2 that encodes PYD and CARD domain containing (OMIM: 606838, UniProtKB: Q9ULZ3), a key mediator in apoptosis and inflammation. It promotes caspase-mediated apoptosis involving caspase-8 and caspase-9 in a cell type-specific manner and is involved in activating the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway, promoting caspase-8-dependent proteolytic maturation of BID, independently of FADD in certain cell types and also mediates mitochondrial translocation of BAX and activates BAX-dependent apoptosis coupled to activation of caspase-9, -2 and -3. It is also involved in macrophage pyroptosis, a caspase-1-dependent inflammatory form of cell death and is the major component of the ASC pyroptosome, which forms upon K+ depletion and rapidly recruits and activates caspase-1. The PYCARD product is an adaptor protein composed of 2 protein-protein interaction domains: an N-terminal PYRIN-PAAD-DAPIN domain–PYD and a C-terminal caspase-recruitment domain–CARD, both of which belong to the 6 helix bundle death domain-fold superfamily. This superfamily mediates assembly of large signaling complexes in the inflammatory and apoptotic signaling pathways by activating caspase. In normal cells, PYCARD localises to the cytoplasm, but in cells undergoing apoptosis, it forms ball-like aggregates near the nucleus.
Synonyms CARD5, TMS1, ASC, PYD And CARD Domain-Containing Protein, HASC, TMS,