A movement disorder characterised by blepharospasm, oromandibular dystonia, involuntary spasms of the facial, tongue, and neck muscles. It has been linked to organic disease of the brain–cavum septi pellucidi and Verga’s ventricle and is a rare complication of neuroleptic–e.g., phenothiazine and butyrophenone–therapy. It is more common in middle-aged to elderly females and may be accompanied by yawning, forced opening of the jaw, oromandibular dystonia, lip retraction, blepharospasm, hemifacial spasm, spasm of the platysma, and protrusion of the tongue, or the jaw may be clamped shut and the lips pursed.
Flemish artist Pieter Bruegel (Brueghel) the Elder (c 1525-1569). The name is from Brueghel’s painting, de Gaper–yawning Man, 1564–Brussels, Musées Royaux des Beaux-Arts; the sitter appears to have been a neuroleptic, which is more commonly linked to orofacial dyskinesia–choreoathetotic chewing, lip smacking, and licking movements
Synonyms Blepharospasm-oromandibular dystonia syndrome, jaw-opening dystonia, median facial spasm, Meige’s disease (in part), Meige syndrome 2, oromandibular dystonia with jaw-opening
References Eur J Neurol. 2003 Nov;10(6):727-9