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guanylyl cyclaseJoe Segen2016-12-30T21:33:57+00:00
Any of a family of enzymes which, in the presence of a metal ion co-factor–e.g., Mg2+ or Mn2+, convert guanosine-5′-triphosphate–GTP into cyclic 3′,5′-guanosine monophosphate–cGMP and pyrophosphate. The second messenger cGMP participates in signalling by stimulating protein kinase G enzymes, altering the conductance of cGMP-gated ion channels and changing cGMP-regulated phosphodiesterase activity.
Types of guanylyl cyclase
• Soluble GC, which are receptors for nitric oxide
• Transmembrane GC, which are receptors for natriuretic peptides.
Physiological roles Regulation of cell hyperplasia, hypertrophy, migration, extracellular matrix production, cell differentiation, tumour progression, communication between the heart, intestine and kidney to regulate blood volume and Na+ balance.
Synonyms GTP pyrophosphate-lyase (cyclising), guanylate cyclase, EC 126.96.36.199