A procedure–often abbreviated as FMT–in which a small amount of faecal material* from a healthy donor is placed in a patient’s lower gastrointestinal tract–by colonoscopy, enema, or nasogastric tube–to manage treatment-refractory Clostridium difficile infection–CDI, which is typically associated with recalcitrant diarrhoea and pseudomembranous colitis.
*The material has been successfully administered as a liquid, frozen, in a lyophilised capsule or as goo–there is no standard protocol.
Mechanism FMT restores the colonic microbiota to its natural state by replacing missing bacteria from the phyla Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes, eradicating C difficile, leading to resolution of clinical symptoms–e.g., diarrhoea, cramping and stool urgency. Bacteriocins–natural antibiotics produced by “good” bacteria may also play a role in eliminating C difficile.
Indications CDI, colitis, constipation, inflammatory bowel disease, and irritable bowel syndrome.
Other conditions for which faecal bacteriotherapy has been tried include autoimmune diseases, diabetes, obesity, and neurologic conditions, including Parkinson’s disease.
Synonym Fecal enema, fecal microbiota therapy, fecal microbiota transplantation, fecal transplant, fecal transplantation, human probiotic infusion, human probiotic therapy, human probiotic transplant, poop therapy, stool transplant, stool transplant therapy, stool transplantation