burning mouth syndrome
A pain syndrome typically described as a scalding sensation on the tongue, lips, palate, or entire mouth, which is most common in older women.
Clinical findings Moderate to severe burning sensation in the mouth, which may persist for months to years, often beginning in late morning, peaking in evening, and subsiding at night; other symptoms include loss of taste, tingling or numbness on the tip of the tongue or in the mouth; bitter or metallic taste, dry or sore mouth; anxiety and depression.
Management Saliva replacement, oral rinses, lidocaine, capsaicin, clonazepam, antidepressants, cognitive behavioural therapy
Aetiology, burning mouth syndrome
– Dentures, especially if poorly fitted
– Dry mouth syndrome
– Drugs, especially ACE-type antihypertensives – Endocrine disorders Diabetes, hypothyroidism
– Fungal infection
– Gastrooesophageal reflux disease (GERD/GORD) – Geographic tongue
– Habits–e.g., tongue thrusting, biting the tip of the tongue, bruxism
– Nutritional Iron, zinc, folate, thiamin, riboflavin, pyridoxine/vitamin B6, vitamin B12 deficiency
– Oral irritation Overbrushing tongue, abrasive toothpastes, mouthwash overuse, acidic drinks
– Psychological factors Anxiety, depression, stress
– Reactions to food, flavourings, food additives, fragrances, dyes or dental-work substances
Synonyms Burning lips syndrome, burning tongue syndrome, glossodynia, scalded mouth syndrome, stomatodynia