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Pasteurella multocida

Background:

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Gram-Negative Cocci & Coccobacilli   
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>Aggregatibacter aphrophilus (formally known as Haemophilus aphrophilus)
>Bordetella pertussis (Causative agent of pertussis or whooping cough. )
>Brucella species:
     1] Brucella abortus
     2] Brucella canis
     3] Brucella melitensis
     4] Brucella suis
>Eikenella corrodens
>Haemophilus species:
     1] Haemophilus influenzae
     2] Haemophilus ducreyi
     3] Haemophilus avium
>Moraxella catarrhalis (formerly known as Branhamella catarrhalis)
>Neisseria species:  (frequently colonize mucosal surfaces.)
     1] Neisseria gonorrhoeae
     2] Neisseria meningitidis
>Pasteurella multocida led

Pasteurella multocida

  • Gram-negative, nonmotile, penicillin-sensitive coccobacillus belonging to the Pasteurellaceae family.
  • Strains belonging to the species are currently classified into 5 serogroups (A, B, D, E, F) based on capsular composition and 16 somatic serovars.
  • Pasteurella multocida is the cause of a range of diseases in mammals and birds. It can also cause a zoonotic infection in humans, which typically is a result of bites or scratches from domestic pets. Many mammals and birds harbor it as part of their normal respiratory microbiota including domestic cats.
  • P. multocida expresses a range of virulence factors including a polysaccharide capsule and the variable carbohydrate surface molecule, lipopolysaccharide (LPS). The capsule has been shown in strains belonging to serogroups A and B to help resist phagocytosis by host immune cells and capsule type A has also been shown to help resist complement-mediated lysis.

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Therapy:

Important considerations:  The choice of an agent should be based on local antimicrobial sensitivities, site of infection, cost, and comorbid conditions.   Generally, the most common agents/regimens are listed first.  Listed dosages may need to be adjusted for renal dysfunction.    Therapy is usually continued for 7 to 10 days.

  1. Amoxicillin 500 mg orally three times daily or 875mg bid.
  2. Penicillin VK 500mg orally every 6 hours
  3. Augmentin 875/125 mg orally twice daily or  500/125mg three times daily
  4. Levofloxacin 750 mg IV/PO once daily
  5. Cefpodoxime (Vantin) 200-400 mg orally twice daily
  6. Moxifloxacin 400 mg po once daily
  7. Bactrim DS orally twice daily
  8. Ceftriaxone 1-2 grams IV q24h  (range: 1-2 grams q12-24h)
  9. Ciprofloxacin 500-750 mg orally q12h or 200-400mg IV q12h
  10. Ampicillin-sulbactam (Unasyn) 1.5 – 3.0 grams IV q6h
  11. Piperacillin-tazobactam (Zosyn ®)  3.375 grams IV q6h
  12. Imipenem 500mg IV every 6 hours [Range: 250-1000 mg q6-8h]
Pasteurella multocida