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Capnocytophaga species

Background:

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Other   (Gram Negative Bacilli)  
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>Aeromonas species:
     1] Aeromonas hydrophila
     2] Aeromonas veronii
     3] Aeromonas shubertii
>Bartonella species:
     1] Bartonella bacilliformis
     2] Bartonella henselae (organism responsible for cat scratch disease)
     3] Bartonella Quintana
     4] Other
>Campylobacter:
     1] Campylobacter fetus
     2] Campylobacter jejuni
>Capnocytophaga species: led
     1] Capnocytophaga canimorsus
     2] Capnocytophaga ochracea
>Francisella tularensis
>Helicobacter pylori
>Legionella species: ( L. pneumophila)
>Plesiomonas shigelloides
>Vibrio species:
     1] Vibrio cholera
     2] Vibrio parahaemolyticus
     3] Vibrio damsela
     4] Other

Capnocytophaga:

  • Gram-negative bacteria. High degree of polymorphism.   Commensal species that is considered an opportunistic pathogen.
  • Capnocytophaga are capnophilic bacteria, they can live only in environments where the concentration of carbon dioxide is greater than that of the atmosphere.
  • Capnocytophaga are fusiform Gram negative bacilli, and are part of the oral commensal flora (often isolated from periodontal pockets but also from apical and periodontal abscesses). 
  • Includes 8 different species: Capnocytophaga ochracea, Capnocytophaga gingivalis, Capnocytophaga granulosa, Capnocytophaga haemolytica, Capnocytophaga sputigena, Capnocytophaga leadbetteri (isolated oral cavity of humans) and Capnocytophaga canimorsus and Capnocytophaga cynodegmi (isolated from the oral cavity of animals).
  • Normally found in the oropharyngeal tract of mammals, they are involved in the pathogenesis of some animal bite wounds as well as periodontal diseases.
  • Capnocytophaga canimorsus transmission following a dog bite can cause overwhelming sepsis in asplenic patients, the elderly, and the immunocompromised.
  • Empiric treatment for this bacteria following a dog bite, consisting of a third-generation cephalosporins early in the infection, should be instituted in these patient populations, or following deep bites or dog bites to the hand.

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Therapy:

Important considerations:  The choice of an agent should be based on local antimicrobial sensitivities, site of infection, cost, and comorbid conditions.   Generally, the most common agents/regimens are listed first.  Listed dosages may need to be adjusted for renal dysfunction.  

  1. Mild disease (oral therapy) – dog/animal bite:
  2. Empiric IV therapy – More severe illness:

Capnocytophaga species